CSIR – UGC NET MATHEMATICAL SCIENCESJanuary 3, 2019
RRB – JE : NOTIFICATION, SYLLABUSJanuary 6, 2019
What are SDGs?
- Sustainable Development goals were adopted by 193 countries at the United Nations Sustainable Development Summit in 2015.
- SDGs came into effect on 1st January 2016 and the deadline to achieve them is 2030.
- It is a universal set of 17 goals and 169 targets to develop actions for greater achievement of Human well-being while leaving no one behind by 2030.
- The spectrum of the 17 SDGs and 169 targets range from poverty eradication, human health and sanitation to urban settlements and to safeguarding the global ecosystems on which humanity depends for its survival.
- 17 Sustainable Development Goals
- Goal 1: No Poverty: End poverty in all its forms everywhere
- Goal 2: Zero Hunger: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture
- Goal 3: Good Health and Well-being: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages
- Goal 4: Quality Education: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all
- Goal 5: Gender Equality Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
- Goal 6: Clean Water and Sanitation Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
- Goal 7: Affordable and Clean Energy Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all
- Goal 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth: Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all
- Goal 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
- Goal 10: Reduced Inequality: Reduce inequality within and among countries
- Goal 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities: Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
- Goal 12: Sustainable Consumption and Production: Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
- Goal 13: Climate Action: Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts
- Goal 14: Life Below Water: Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development
- Goal 15: Life on Land: Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation
- Goal 16: Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels
- Goal 17: Partnerships for the Goals Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development
SDG India Index 2018
- NITI Aayog has constructed the SDG India Index spanning across 13 out of 17 SDGs (leaving out Goals 12, 13, 14 and 17). The Index tracks the progress of all the States and UTs on a set of 62 Priority Indicators, measuring their progress on the outcomes of the interventions and schemes of the Government of India
- SDG India Index does not currently cover Goals 12, 13 and 14 largely on account of unavailability of comparable data across States and UTs. Further, SDG 17 is also not included given that indicators have not been identified by the National Indicator Framework for this goal.
- SDG India Index will act as a tool to highlight the key areas on which the respective States/UTs need to invest and improve by enabling States/UTs to measure incremental progress.
- A composite score was computed for each State and UT of India based on their aggregate performance across 13 of the 17 SDGs
- The score ranges between 0 and 100. If a State achieves a score of 100, it signifies that the State has achieved the national target set for 2030. On the other hand, if a State achieves a score of 0, it signifies that the State was the worst performer.
- The SDG Index Score for Sustainable Development Goals 2030 ranges between 42 and 69 for States and between 57 and 68 for UT’s.
- Among the States, Kerala and Himachal Pradesh are the front runners with an SDG India Index score of 69. Among the UTs, Chandigarh is a front-runner with a score of 68.
- Kerala’s top rank is attributed to its superior performance in providing good health, reducing hunger, achieving gender equality and providing quality education.
- Himachal Pradesh ranks high on providing clean water and sanitation, in reducing inequalities and preserving mountain ecosystem.
- Among the UTs, Chandigarh takes the lead because of its exemplary performance in providing clean water and sanitation to its people. It has further made good progress toward providing affordable and clean energy, generating decent work and economic growth, and providing quality education.
SDG 1: No Poverty
- By 2030, eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere
- India is implementing a comprehensive development strategy to end poverty in all its forms
- According to the Tendulkar Committee estimates, the poverty rate in India declined by 18 per cent between 1993-94 and 2004-05, and further declined by 41 per cent between 2004-05 and 2011-12; in 2011-12, 21.9 per cent of India’s population was below the poverty line.
- The Index Score for SDG 1 on poverty ranges between 37 and 76 for States and between 21 and 61 for UTs
- Tamil Nadu and Puducherry are the best performers among the States and UTs respectively
- Jharkhand and Dadar Nagar Haveli are the worst performers.
SDG 2: Zero Hunger
- By 2030, end hunger and ensure access by all people, in particular, the poor and people in vulnerable situations, including infants, to safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round
- According to the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4), almost half of pregnant Indian women aged between 15 and 49 years are anaemic, and more than one-third of women have a low body mass index.
- Among children younger than age five, 38.4 per cent have low height-for-age, and 21 per cent have low weight-for-age
- SDG Index Score for the Goal of Zero Hunger ranges between 35 and 80 for States and between 38 and 72 for UTs.
- Goa and Delhi were the top performings among States and UTs respectively
- Jharkhand and Andaman and Nicobar are worst performers
SDG 3: Global Health & Well-being
- By 2030, reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births
- To reduce neonatal mortality to at least as low as 12 per 1,000 live births and under-5 mortality to at least as low as 25 per 1,000 live births
- SDG Index Score for the Goal of Good Health and Well-being ranges between 25 and 92 for States and between 23 and 66 for UTs.
- Kerala is the best performer among the States and Puducherry among the Uts
- Uttar Pradesh and Chandigarh are at the bottom of the aspirants’ zone
- Maternal Mortality Ratio PER 1,00,000 LIVE BIRTHS 130 TARGET – 70
- For every 1000 live births, 50 CHILDREN aged under five years die: Target -11
- 62% Immunization cover among children aged 12-23 months: Target 100%
- 221 GOVERNMENTAL HEALTH WORKERS PER 1,00,000 PERSONS: Target: 550
- Kerala has the highest rate of 762
SDG 4: Quality Education
- By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys complete free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education leading to relevant and effective learning outcomes
- The SDG Index Score for the Goal of Quality Education ranges between 36 and 87 for States and between 46 and 85 for UTs.
- Kerala is the top performer and Chandigarh, among the Uts
- Bihar and Daman and Diu are at the bottom of aspirants zone.
- 75.83% of eligible children are enrolled at elementary and secondary level.
- 81.15% of school teachers in India are professionally qualified
SDG 5: Gender Equality
- End all forms of discrimination against all women and girls everywhere
- The SDG Index Score for the Goal of Gender Equality ranges between 24 and 50 for States and between 27 and 58 for Uts
- Kerala and Sikkim among the States, and Andaman and the Nicobar Islands, and Chandigarh among the UTs are in the Performers category
- Bihar and Puducherry are at the bottom
- 8.7% of seats in State Legislative Assemblies are held by women
- One in three women have experienced SPOUSAL VIOLENCE
- 898 are born for every 1000 males
- Average wages and salaries of females is 70 per cent of that of males for regular wage and salaried employees in the age group 15-59 years in India
- Labour force participation rate of women in India is only 32 per cent of the labour force participation rate of men
SDG 6: Clean Water and Sanitation
- By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all
- As per 2011 Census data, 85.5 per cent population had access to safe drinking water whereas only 30.8 per cent of the households in rural areas had toilet facilities.
- As a result of the Swachh Bharat Mission, as of November 2018, 96 per cent of the targeted household toilets have been constructed and 3.9 lakh villages across India have been verified to be open defecation free (ODF).
- The SDG Index Score for the Goal of Clean Water and Sanitation ranges between 31 and 100 for States and between 45 and 100 for UTs.
- Gujarat has achieved a full score of 100. The same score is shared by Chandigarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, and Lakshadweep, among UTs.
- Puducherry and Bihar are still struggling.
SDG 7: Affordable and Clean Energy
- By 2030, ensure universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services
- In April 2018, India achieved the milestone of providing electricity to all the Census villages and aims to achieve universal electrification at the household level by 31st March 2019
- Currently, In terms of renewable energy installed capacity, India ranks 4th globally after China, USA and Germany
- Tamil Nadu, Mizoram and Karnataka are the top three performers on this Goal with a score of 89, 78 and 77 respectively
- Among UTs, Chandigarh fares the best with a score of 96.
- Meghalaya, Delhi are at the bottom
- By the end of October 2018, nearly 95 per cent of households were electrified. Six States along with the UT of Puducherry have achieved universal access to electricity.
- According to the National Family Health Survey-4, 2015-16, 43.8 per cent of the Indian households use clean cooking fuels
SDG 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth
- By 2030, achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all women and men, including for young people and persons with disabilities, and equal pay for work of equal value
- World Bank’s Ease of Doing Business Rankings, 2018, from the 100th rank in 2017 to 77th rank in 2018
- Goa (90) is the top performer and Daman and Diu (91) among the UTs.
- Manipur (33) and Lakshadweep (60) are at the bottom
- 6.5% GDP growth rate of India The target is to take this rate to 10 per cent. Sixteen States and three UTs have annual per capita GDP growth rate more than the national average
- 64 persons are unemployed per 1000 population. The 2030 target is to reduce this figure to 14.83. Among the States, Gujarat has the least number of unemployed persons per 1000 (10/1000).
SDG 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure
- Promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and, by 2030, significantly raise the industry’s share of employment and gross domestic product, in line with national circumstances, and double its share in the least developed countries
- The UTs of Delhi and Puducherry are the Achievers of this Goal as they scored a full 100 on the Index
- Manipur (72), Kerala (68) Gujarat (65): Mizoram (0), Goa (0), Nagaland (0), Sikkim (1)
- 47.38% rural habitations are connected with all-weather roads
- For every 100 persons 33 Internet Subscribers and 83 Mobile connections
- Currently, 42.43 per cent of the Gram Panchayats in India is covered under Bharat Net, as against the national target of 100 per cent.
SDG 10: Reduced Inequalities
- By 2030, empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all, irrespective is age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or another status
- The Achievers (with Index score equal to 100) among the States are Meghalaya, Mizoram and Telangana, and among the UTs are Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, and Lakshadweep.
SDG 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities
- By 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services, and upgrade slums
- Among the States, Goa (71) is the top performer, and Andaman and Nicobar Islands, among the UTs.
- Jammu and Kashmir (23), Dadar Nagar Haveli (6) are at the bottom 5.41 per cent of the urban households in India live in slums. Among the States, Andhra Pradesh has the highest percentage of its urban population living in slums (12.04 per cent)
SDG 15: Life on Land
- By 2020, promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests and substantially increase afforestation and reforestation globally
- The Achievers (with an Index score equal to 100) are Assam, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Manipur, Odisha and Uttarakhand among the States, and Dadra and Nagar Haveli, and Lakshadweep among the UTs.
- The total forest cover of India is 21.54 per cent of the geographic area of the country.
SDG 16: Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions
- Goal 16 primarily focusses on significantly reducing all forms of violence, and promoting the rule of law at the national and international levels to ensure equal access to justice for all
- Himachal Pradesh with a score of 91 and Puducherry with a score of 92 top the list of States and UTs respectively
- There were 24 cases of violence against children reported for every one lakh child in 2015-16.
- At present, there are about 13 courts per 10 lakh population in India
- For every 1 crore people in India, 34 corruption cases have been reported.