K TET Category II – Paper II (For classes VI to VIII)
K TET SYLLABUS CATEGORY – IV
December 24, 2018
K TET Category I – Paper I (For Classes I to V)
December 24, 2018

I. CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND PEDAGOGY                                                                         30 Questions
A. Child development ( Elementary Child)                                                                             (15 Questions)
1. The concept of development and its relation to learning
Growth and Development – stages of development – Infancy, Childhood, Adolescence – Maturation – Relationship between development, Maturation and learning.
Principles of development of children
Major principles of growth and development – Implication of learning – Influence of Heredity and Environment
Role of Heredity and Environment on the development of a child -Teacher’s role.
2. Socialization Process
The concept of Socialization – Social world and children: Role of family, peers, teachers in the process of
socialization – a pattern of social development – Erick Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development.
3. Piaget, Kohlberg, Vygotsky – Constructs and Critical Perspectives
Cognitive development theory of Piaget, Kohlberg’s theory of moral development – Vygotsky’s theory of
social constructivism – Educational Implications.
4. The concept of child-centred and Progressive Education.
The concept of child-centeredness – Individual difference – Methods of teaching and learning – Activity methods
– The concept of progressive education – Role of a teacher.
5. Critical perspective of the construct of Intelligence
The concept of Intelligence – Theories of intelligence – factor theories – S-I model of Intellect – multiple
Intelligence – Concept of I Q – Intelligence Tests (Examples) – Sternberg’s Information processing theory.
6. Language and Thought
Language development – stages, Theories – Piaget, Vygotsky, Chomsky – Relationship between language
and thought -approaches to language learning and teaching.
7. Gender as a social construct
Gender Roles, bias, educational practices – Gender equality – a teacher’s role.
8. An individual difference among learners
Understanding differences based on diversity of language, caste, gender, community, religion etc. The individual
difference – socio-cultural determinants

9. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation
( C C E) Concept – Assessment to learning – strategies – Cumulative records, Anecdotal records, Portfolios
Assessment Techniques. – Feedback
10. Nature of prior learning
Readiness for learning – Strategies for assessment – Encouraging critical thinking – Teacher’s role.

B. Inclusive Education                                                                 (5 Questions)
Addressing learners from diverse backgrounds – including disadvantaged and deprived. LD, MR, O P H,
Sensorily deprived – socially and culturally deprived – Educational Implications/ Addressing the needs of
LD. Exceptional children – Gifted, creative, specially-abled children – Educational provision – Needs –
characteristics – Identification and Remedial measures
C. Learning and Pedagogy                                                            (10 Questions)
Identification of individual learner needs – Intellectual, Emotional, Social, Creative needs, Catering to the
individual needs of learners.
1. The process of teaching and learning –
Creating Learning situations – criteria of learning experiences – different modes of learning – social learning
(Bandura) – co-operative and collaborative learning, Group discussion – Role of Teacher.
2. Cognitive Process and Emotions
Perception – concept formation – thinking – Imagination – Reasoning – Inductive and deductive – Problem
solving – Memory – Emotional development – characteristics, Emotional maturity Emotional Intelligence
– Emotional Quittance (EQ)
3. Motivation and Learning
Learning – Factors affecting Learning – Theories of Learning – Pavlov, Thorndike, Skinner, Gagne’s
hierarchy of learning, Insightful learning (Kohler) – Constructivism – Piaget, Bruner, Vygotsky, Ausubel –
Educational Implications
Motivation – Concept, types – Importance to learning – Theories of motivation – Abraham Maslow, Mc Clelland
4. Personality and adjustment
Concept – Approaches – Type, Trait – Allport – Measurement of personality – Projective and Non-projective
techniques – Adjustment Mechanisms
                                                                                                                                                                  Total 30 Marks

II. LANGUAGE I – MALAYALAM/ENGLISH/TAMIL/KANNADA
A. MALAYALAM                                                                                                                                 30 Questions

B. ENGLISH                                                                                                                                         30 Questions
a. Language Comprehension                                                                                                        15 Questions
• An unfamiliar passage or poem with questions on reading comprehension, inference, vocabulary and language elements.
• Questions to evaluate the knowledge of basic grammar such as Tense forms, Articles, Prepositions and Linkers.
b. Pedagogy of Language Development                                                                                      15 Questions
• Language Acquisition and Learning – Theories and their classroom implications.
• Principles of Language Teaching
• Language skills – Strategies to develop them
• Problems and challenges in language classrooms
• Teaching-learning materials – Textbook, ICT and other teaching aids.
• Learner Assessment – Self, Peer, Teacher
• Strategies for teaching children with special needs (CWSN)
• Teacher Attitude and Aptitude
                                                                                                                                                                    Total 30 Marks

C. TAMIL                                                                                                                                                 30 Questions
1. Reading Comprehension – Prose 5 Questions
A. Comprehension of theme
B. Interpretation
C. Inference
2. Reading Comprehension – Poem. 5 Questions
A. Poetic images
B. Comprehension of themes
C. Interpretation
E. Extended Meaning
3. Pedagogical aspects of Mothertongue education – Class – VI-VIII 10 Questions
A. Principles of Language Learning
B. The inclusion of differently abled children
C. The methodology of curriculum Transaction
4. Language Literature and culture. 10 Questions
A. Books and Authors
B. Functional Grammar
C. Proverbs
D. Trends in Literature
E. Foreign Contribution in Tamil Literature
F. Tamil Festivals and Folk Arts
                                                                                                                                                                      Total 30 Marks
D. KANNADA                                                                                                                                           30 Questions
1. Reading comprehension – Prose 5 Questions
A. Comprehension of Theme
B. Interpretation
C. Inference
2. Reading comprehension –Poem 5 Questions
A. Comprehension of Theme
B. Poetic images
C. Poetic emotions and feelings
D. Imagination elements
3. Pedagogical aspects of Kannada Language – Class 6 to 8 10 Questions
A. Principles of Language learning
B. Classroom Practices
C. The inclusion of differently abled children
D. The methodology of curriculum transaction
4. History of Language, Literature and Culture 10 Questions
A. Idioms, Phrases and usages
B. Functional grammar
C. Proverbs
D. Rhythms
E. History and Forms of Literature
                                                                                                                                                                    Total 30 Marks
III. LANGUAGE II – MALAYALAM/ENGLISH/HINDI/
ARABIC/URDU/SANSKRIT
A. MALAYALAM                                                                                                                                  30 Questions


B. ENGLISH                                                                                                                                                 30 Questions
a. Language Comprehension                                                                                                                15 Questions
• One or two unfamiliar passages or poems with questions on comprehension, inference, vocabulary and elements of grammar.
• A few questions to evaluate knowledge of basic grammar, such as
– Article
– Concord
– Question tags
– Prepositions
– Tense and time
– Modal Auxiliaries
– Phrasal verbs and idioms
– Degrees of comparison
– Active and passive voice
– Reported speech
– Language functions
– Error identification
b. Pedagogy of Language Development                                                                                              15 Questions
• Language Acquisition and Learning – Theories and their classroom implications.
• Principles of Language Teaching
• Problems and challenges in the language classrooms
• Language skills – strategies to develop them
• Teaching-learning materials – Textbook, ICT and other teaching aids.
• Assessment – Self, Peer, Teacher
• Strategies for teaching children with special needs (CWSN)
                                                                                                                                                                      Total 30 Marks
C. HINDI                                                                                                                                                    30 Questions
A. Pedagogy of language development.                                                                                         15 Questions
• Concepts and process in language learning and acquisition.
• Developments – principles of language teaching.
• Role of listening and speaking.
• Functions of language and how children use it as a tool in formal and informal situations.
• Role of grammar in learning a language for communicating ideas verbally and in written form critical perspective.
• Challenges in language teaching.
• Diverse classroom – errors and disorders.
• Language skills.
• Evaluation of language learning-comprehension and proficiency.
• Teaching-learning material-other resource materials to be used in classrooms.
• Remedial measures to be taken in a language class.
• Creating proper interactive situations in language classrooms.
• Competence of a teacher in selecting proper extended materials in language classrooms.
• Various forms of presentation of discourses in language classrooms.
• How to address the special needs of differently abled children in language classrooms.
B. Questions for Language comprehension –                                                                                15 Questions
Reading unseen passages (prose, poem) and elements of language
Division of Questions
Question from Poem 5 Questions
Question from Prose 6 Questions
Question from Language Elements 4 Questions
(Translation, technical terms, history of language, language elements)
• Question to be asked on the basis of the poem given to test the competence to comprehend ideas and enjoy the poetic emotions and feelings, imaginative elements, ideas and views beyond the lines, particular forms of composition, etc.
• Questions on the given prose or drama to test the competency for comprehension, interpretation and language usage.
• Language elements like a structure of sentences, the combination of words, usage of words in various situations, idioms in use and basic grammar.
• History & Culture of Languages – Major landmarks – developments of modern prose (Discourses)
                                                                                                                                                                       Total 30 Marks
D. ARABIC                                                                                                                                                 30 Questions

                                                                                                                                                                Total 30 Marks

E. URDU                                                                                                                                              30 Questions

                                                                                                                                                                       Total 30 Marks

IV.A SCIENCE & MATHEMATICS                                                                                              60 Questions
SCIENCE                                                                                                                                               30 Questions
a) Content 20 Questions
􀁻 Germination of seed
• Steps of seed germination.
• Plant Adaptations.
• Pest-pest control.
• Chemical and biological pest control.
􀁻 Cell
• Cell structure.
• Cell Organelles.
• Tissue.
• Types of tissues.
• Organ system.
• Levels of an organisation.
􀁻 Diseases
• Microorganisms.
• Mode of disease transmission.
• Preventive measures.
􀁻 Pollution
• Different types of pollution.
• Bio-degradable and non-biodegradable pollutants.
• Plastic waste.

􀁻 Cardiovascular system
• Heart -blood-lymph
• Arteries- veins- capillaries
• Cardiovascular diseases
􀁻 Cellular equilibrium
• Osmosis-diffusion-active transport
• Cellular equilibrium
􀁻 Excretion
• Kidney-skin.
􀁻 Plant reproduction
• Agents of pollination
• Seed dispersal
• Types of fruits.
􀁻 Animal nutrition
• Human digestive system
• Indigenous food
• Food Adulteration.
􀁻 Human nervous system
• Brain-nervous disorders.
􀁻 Body structure
Human skeletal system
• Joints
• First aid.
􀁻 Agriculture
• Hybrid varieties of plants
• Crop rotation
• Nitrogen fixation
• Vegetative propagation- (budding, grafting, layering)
• Tissue culture
• Plant nutrition
• Chemical and biofertilizers
• Integrated farming
• Pisciculture- sericulture- epiculture
• Plant diseases-plant disease control measures
• Agricultural garden- agricultural research institutes.
• Indigenous varieties of animals- hybrid varieties of animals.
• Taxonomy
• Two kingdom and five kingdom classification
• Binomial nomenclature.
􀁻 Ecosystem
• Food chain- food web- positive and negative interactions.
􀁻 Biodiversity
• Conservation of biodiversity

• Biosphere reserve- a national park- zoological park- gene bank-
• Endemic species
• Hotspot- sustainable development.
􀁻 Transparent and opaque objects
Reflection of light – images-different types of mirrors. solar eclipse-lunar eclipse-orbit-satellite information
technology, Image formation by spherical mirrors.
􀁻 Solar system
Sun, planets, satellites, asteroids, meteorites, comets, etc.
􀁻 Simple machines
Inclined plane-pulleys-lever-fulcrum-resistance-effort -application of simple machines-electromagnet
􀁻 Magnetism
Properties of magnet, applications, earth’s magnetism
􀁻 Energy
Different forms of energy-fuels-conservation of energy-forms of fuels-potential energy- kinetic
energy-evaporation of water-
􀁻 Thermal Expansion
Density – heat and change of state-sea breeze and land breeze-atmospheric pressure and its
application-fluid pressure. temperature, thermometer
􀁻 Static Electricity
Frictional electricity, electroscope, earthing, lightning and lightning arresters, conductors and insulators.
􀁻 Sound
Production of sound-characteristics of sound, application of sound (sonar, ultrasound etc) propagation
of sound – sound pollution-musical instruments.
􀁻 Motion
Different types of motion-uniform, non-uniform speed-velocity-acceleration-Newton’s laws of
motion-friction-advantages and disadvantages.
􀁻 Thermal conductivity
Radiation-applications of thermal insulators (flask, casseroles)
􀁻 Basic concepts of force
Types of force-inertia-relation between inertia and mass.
Basic concepts of thrust and pressure-relationship between surface area and thrust.
Atmospheric pressure – barometer
􀁻 Different types of mixtures
Methods of separation of pure substances-acids and bases and its characteristics, reaction with
metals and carbonates.
Neutralisation, PH
􀁻 Metals
Metals and its characteristics-prevention of corrosion.
􀁻 Cosmetics
􀁻 Chemical reactions and its classification
Chemical reactions in day to day life-effect of chemical reactions on nature.

Molecules and atoms- fundamental concepts-classification of matter-symbols of elements-properties
of elements and matter-structure of atom-discovery-Dalton’s concept- atom model-Bohr’ model of
the atom-atomic number and mass number.
Octet electronic configuration
Role of electrons in bonding- valency-ions – atomicity
b. Pedagogy                                                                                                                                                    10 Questions
Approaches to the science curriculum-criticism of contemporary science education-Aims and objectives of science education-science literacy.
Approaches of science education-taxonomy of science education.
Knowledge domain
Problem-solving skills-creativity domain-attitudinal domain-application domain Scientific inquiry
Pedagogic strategies-activity based – collaborative and cooperative learning.
The significance of the history of science Significance of laboratory Evaluation, CCE, assessment of performance
Scientific attitude Methods of science teaching
Role of science teacher teaching and learning aids
The psychological  basis of science learning
                                                                                                                                                                       Total 30 marks
MATHEMATICS                                                                                                                                       30 Questions
The examination will be broadly based on the topics prescribed for classes 6 to 8 in the Kerala State
syllabus for mathematics but some problems may have links to an extension of these concepts to the Higher
Secondary stage. The details are given below:
1. Content
Arithmetic
Fractions: Different forms of the same fraction and reduction to the lowest terms. Operations on fractions.
Representation of certain fractions as terminating decimals. Operations on such decimals.
Percentage: Concept of the percent and its relation to fractions. Applications of percentage  in monetary transactions,
such as interest (simple and compound), profit and loss, and discount.
Average: Average as a representative number of a group of numbers. Computation of average. Quick
computation of the change in average when one number of the group is replaced by another. Average of
combined groups
Negative Numbers: Use of negative numbers in certain physical contexts such as temperature and
scoring. Fundamental operations of negative numbers. Use of negative numbers in algebra.
Exponentiation: Exponentiation as repeated multiplication. Positive integral powers. Multiplication and
division of numbers expressed as powers. Meaning of negative powers and its use in simplification.
Ratio and Proportion: Ratios for comparing two or more magnitudes using a common unit. Multiple
interpretations of comparisons involving ratios. Uses of the idea in such contexts as comparing different
types in a group, different ingredients in a mixture, monetary division, aspect ratio in geometry and so on.
Proportion as a change of quantities without changing the ratio. The idea of the constant of proportion.

Inverse proportion as proportionality with the reciprocal. The equations y = kx and y =k/x . Use of these
ideas in physics, such as in elasticity, levers and gravitation.
Time and Distance: The concept of average speed. The relation between time, distance and average speed.
Finding the average speed of trips done in two parts in various cases such as when the distance in both parts
are equal and when the time for both parts are the same.
Algebra
Use of algebra to express unchanging relations between changing physical quantities. Algebraic expressions
as shorthand for arithmetical operations on unspecified numbers. General properties of arithmetic operations,
especially products of sums and differences as algebraic identities. Formulation and solution of a linear
equation in one unknown, arising from certain physical and mathematical contexts.
Geometry
Angles: Angle as a measure of slant and as a measure of spread. The degree measure of an angle by dividing a
circle into 360 equal sectors. Perpendicularity relation between the four angles made by two intersecting lines.
Parallel Lines: A pair of parallel lines as lines keeping the same distance throughout and as lines having
the same slant with a third line. Characterization of a pair of parallel lines in terms of various pairs of
angles from the eight angles made by intersection with a third line. Sum of angles of a triangle and polygons.
Triangles: Area of a triangle in terms of base and height. Drawing triangles according to some specified
measures. Cases where two different triangles are possible and no triangle is possible. The concept of
congruency of triangles, Sufficient conditions for two triangles to be congruent, such as having lengths of
all three sides equal, lengths of two sides and included angle equal, lengths of one side and the two angles
on it equal. Various applications of these ideas such as in proving properties of parallelograms and isosceles
triangles, drawing the perpendicular bisector of a line and bisector of an angle.
Quadrilaterals: Classification of quadrilaterals as rectangle, square, parallelogram, rhombus, and trapezium
and their various characterizations. Drawing these types of quadrilaterals of specified measures. Areas
of various types of quadrilaterals.
Solids: The idea of a rectangular prism. Its volume and surface area.
Statistics
Graphical Representation: Representing numerical data as pictographs, bar graphs, multiple bar graphs,
line graphs and pie charts. Drawing inferences from such graphs.
Tabular Representation: Representing numerical data as a frequency table.
2. Pedagogy
Nature of Mathematics
Abstraction, Understanding children’s thinking and reasoning. The language of Mathematics.
Place of Mathematics in Curriculum
Aims and objectives of learning mathematics in primary classes -Values of mathematics learning.
Correlation with other subjects, Lower Primary and Upper primary Mathematics curriculum
Mathematics – Trends and Developments
Historical development of mathematics
History of great mathematicians and their contributions

Approach to Mathematics Learning
Proper learning experiences keeping in mind the characteristics of children, his natural learning capacity
and the learning process of the child.
Theoretical base of learning mathematics
Learning of Mathematics – Strategies and Methods
learning strategies- Concept attainment, Process oriented approach, Projects, Seminars, Field trip, etc.
Different teaching-learning methods –Inductive and deductive method, Analytic and Synthetic method,
Project Method, laboratory method. Planning of a lesson
Learning Materials in Mathematics
Textbook and Handbooks, Information technology, Mathematics club, Mathematics laboratory, Mathematics
fair, Mathematics library. Mathematics collection – the collection of mathematical puzzles, riddles, etc.
Mathematics Learning – Evaluation
The concept of continuous and comprehensive evaluation, Evaluation activities, Grading the performance and
recording the results. Diagnosis, Remedial Teaching and Error Analysis.
                                                                                                                                                                        Total 30 Marks

IV. B SOCIAL SCIENCE                                                                                                                         60 Questions
(i) HISTORY                                                                                                                                             (12 Questions)
1. Stone age, the beginning of agriculture
2. Civilizations – Egypt, China, Mesopotamia, Harappa
3. Industrial and agrarian revolutions, capitalism
4. Socialism, labour movements and labour struggles
5. Colonialism in India
6. Struggles of peasants, workers, tribals, women, sepoys, poligars, rulers and chieftains
7. Revolt of 1857
8. Social reform movements of India
9. Indian national movement and Gandhian era.
10. Movements for social change, peasant struggles and national movement in modern Kerala
(ii) GEOGRAPHY                                                                                                                                  (12 Questions)
1. Planets and other heavenly bodies
2. Size, shape, the interior structure of the earth, seasons, temperature zones
3. Latitude, longitude, longitude and time
4. Map and its types, scale, topographical maps, globe
5. Climate & weather, temperature, pressure, rainfall and winds
6. India – Relief, climate, drainage, vegetation
7. India – Resources, agriculture, industry, transport, population
8. Kerala – Physiography, drainage, agriculture, transport, human life
9. Environmental problems and conservative measures.

(iii) ECONOMICS                                                                                                                                       (8 Questions)
1. Economic growth, development and human development – concepts and trends
2. Five Year Plans
3. Agriculture, food security and poverty
4. Traditional industries of Kerala
5. Money and banking
6. Demographic trends – India and Kerala
7. Globalisation and India
(iv) POLITICAL SCIENCE                                                                                                                       (8 Questions)
1. Democracy
2. People and State Government
3. Political parties – Types and functions
4. The election process and the Role of Election Commission
5. Local Self Governments
(v) SOCIAL SCIENCE – PEDAGOGY (20 Questions)
1. Nature, scope, importance and correlation
2. National goals, aims & objectives of instruction
3. Curriculum – trends, principles & organisations
4. Analysis and planning of instruction.
5. Types of learners and requirements for learning
6. Learning resources and co-curricular activities
7. Purpose and modern trends of evaluation
8. Methods, approaches & techniques of instruction
9. Characteristics of modern instructional strategies